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Aging Characteristics of Stationary Lithium-Ion Battery Systems with Serial and Parallel Cell Configurations

  • The significant market growth of stationary electrical energy storage systems both for private and commercial applications has raised the question of battery lifetime under practical operation conditions. Here, we present a study of two 8 kWh lithium-ion battery (LIB) systems, each equipped with 14 lithium iron phosphate/graphite (LFP) single cells in different cell configurations. One system wasThe significant market growth of stationary electrical energy storage systems both for private and commercial applications has raised the question of battery lifetime under practical operation conditions. Here, we present a study of two 8 kWh lithium-ion battery (LIB) systems, each equipped with 14 lithium iron phosphate/graphite (LFP) single cells in different cell configurations. One system was based on a standard configuration with cells connected in series, including a cell-balancing system and a 48 V inverter. The other system featured a novel configuration of two stacks with a parallel connection of seven cells each, no cell-balancing system, and a 4 V inverter. The two systems were operated as part of a microgrid both in continuous cycling mode between 30% and 100% state of charge, and in solar-storage mode with day–night cycling. The aging characteristics in terms of capacity loss and internal resistance change in the cells were determined by disassembling the systems for regular checkups and characterizing the individual cells under well-defined laboratory conditions. As a main result, the two systems showed cell-averaged capacity losses of 18.6% and 21.4% for the serial and parallel configurations, respectively, after 2.5 years of operation with 810 (serial operation) and 881 (parallel operation) cumulated equivalent full cycles. This is significantly higher than the aging of a reference single cell cycled under laboratory conditions at 20 °C, which showed a capacity loss of only 10% after 1000 continuous full cycles.show moreshow less

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Metadaten
Author:Mehmet C. YagciORCiD, Thomas Feldmann, Elmar BollinGND, Michael SchmidtORCiDGND, Wolfgang G. BesslerORCiDGND
Publisher:MDPI
Place of publication:Basel
Year of Publication:2022
Date of first Publication:2022/05/26
Tag:aging characteristics; lithium iron phosphate (LFP); lithium-ion battery; microgrid operation; stationary electrical energy storage
Parent Title (English):Energies
Volume:15
Issue:11
Article Number:3922
ISSN:1996-1073
First Page:1
Last Page:19
Document Type:Article (reviewed)
Language:English
Release Date:2022/06/07
Institutes:Bibliografie
Open Access: Open Access 
Licence (German):License LogoCreative Commons - CC BY - Namensnennung 4.0 International
URN:https://urn:nbn:de:bsz:ofb1-opus4-57684
DOI:https://doi.org/10.3390/en15113922