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The flow field-flow fractionation (FIFFF) technique is a promising method for separating and analysing particles and large size macromolecules from a few nanometers to approximately 50 μm. A new fractionation channel is described featuring well defined flow conditions even for low channel heights with convenient assembling and operations features. The application of the new flow field-flow fractionation channel is proved by the analysis of pigments and other small particles of technical interest in the submicrometer range. The experimental results including multimodal size distributions are presented and discussed.

Rotating flow systems are often used to study stability phenomena and structure developments. The closed spherical gap problem is generalized into an open flow system by superimposing a mass flux in meridional direction. The basic solutions at low Reynolds numbers are described by analytical methods. The nonlinear supercritical solutions are simulated numerically and realized in experiments. Novel steady and time-dependent modes of flows are obtained. The extensive results concern the stability behaviour, non-uniqueness of supercritical solutions, symmetry behaviour and transitions between steady and time-dependent solutions. The experimental investigations concern the visualization of the various instabilities and the quatitative description of the flow structures including the laminar-turbulent transition. A comparison between theoretical and experimental results shows good agreement within the limit of rotational symmetric solutions from the theory.

We generalize the fluid flow problem of an oscillating flat plate (II. Stokes problem) in two directions. We discuss first the oscillating porous flat plate with superimposed blowing or suction. The second generalization is concerned with an increasing or decreasing velocity amplitude of the oscillating flat plate. Finally we show that a combination of both effects is possible as well.

An algorithm is presented that has successfully been utilized in practice for several years. It improves data analysis in chromatography. The program runs in an extremely reliable way and evaluates chromatographic raw data with an acceptable error. The algorithm requires a minimum of preliminaries and integrates even unsmoothed noisy data correctly.

Formal verification (FV) is considered by many to be complicated and to require considerable mathematical knowledge for successful application. We have developed a methodology in which we have added formal verification to the verification process without requiring any knowledge of formal verification languages. We use only finite-state machine notation, which is familiar and intuitive to designers. Another problem associated with formal verification is state-space explosion. If that occurs, no result is returned; our method switches to random simulation after one hour without results, and no effort is lost. We have compared FV against random simulation with respect to development time, and our results indicate that FV is at least as fast as random simulation. FV is superior in terms of verification quality, however, because it is exhaustive.

This paper treats the interaction between acoustic modes and light (Brillouin scattering) in a single mode optical fibre. Different observed spectra of the Brillouin backscattering in several fibres have been already reported. In order to have a clear idea of the process, we made a simulation to be able to `draw' the theoretical Brillouin spectrum of an optical fibre and to identify the origin of the observed backscattered lines.
First, the model and the computation method used in our simulation are described. Second, the experimentally observed spectra of two real fibres are compared with their computed spectra. Real spectra and simulated spectra are in good agreement.
Our work provides an interesting tool to investigate the changes in the Brillouin spectrum when the input parameters (characteristics of an optical fibre) vary. This should give useful indications to people working on systems which use Brillouin backscattering.

In this paper a high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) scanner is presented in which a special fibre arrangement is used as HPTLC plate scanning interface. Measurements are taken with a set of 50 fibres at a distance of 400 to 500 μm above the HPTLC plate. Spatial resolutions on the HPTLC plate of better than 160 μm are possible. It takes less than 2 min to scan 450 spectra simultaneously in a range of 198 to 610 nm. The basic improvement of the item is the use of highly transparent glass fibres which provide excellent transmission at 200 nm and the use of a special fibre arrangement for plate illumination and detection.

Der Beitrag beschreibt wichtige Eckdaten und Ergebnisse der Kraftschlußregelung, die in der Lokomotive 12X auf internationalen Strecken erprobt wurde, und mit der auch zukünftige Projekte ausgestattet werden. Diese werden nicht nur von weiteren technischen Verbesserungen profitieren, sondern auch von geringerem Aufwand für die Inbetriebsetzung.

Shapes and structures of vortex breakdown phenomena in rotating fluids are visualized. We investigate the flow in a cylindrical container and in a cone between two spherical surfaces. The primary swirling flow is induced by the rotating upper disk in the cylindrical case and by the lower boundary in the spherical case. The upper surface can be fixed with a no slip condition or can be a stress-free surface. Depending on these boundary conditions and on the Reynolds number novel structures of recirculation zones are realized. Experiments are done to visualize the topological structure of the flow and to determine their existence range as function of the geometry and rotation rate. A comparison between the experimental and theoretical approach shows a good agreement in respect to the topological structures of the flows.