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In a recent paper it has been shown that the effective nonlinear constant which is used in a P-Matrix approach to describe third-order intermodulation (IMD3) in surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices can be obtained from finite element (FEM) calculations of a periodic cell using nonlinear tensor data [1]. In this paper we extend this FEM calculation and show that the IMD3 of an infinite periodic array of electrodes on a piezoelectric substrate can be directly simulated in the sagittal plane. This direct approach opens the way for a FEM based simulation of nonlinearities for finite and generalized structures avoiding the simplifications of phenomenological approaches.

Laser ultrasound was used to determine dispersion curves of surface acoustic waves on a Si (001) surface covered by AlScN films with a scandium content between 0 and 41%. By including off-symmetry directions for wavevectors, all five independent elastic constants of the film were extracted from the measurements. Results for their dependence on the Sc content are presented and compared to corresponding data in the literature, obtained by alternative experimental methods or by ab-initio calculations.

Elastic constants of components are usually determined by tensile tests in combination with ultrasonic
experiments. However, these properties may change due to e.g. mechanical treatments or service conditions during
their lifetime. Knowledge of the actual material parameters is key to the determination of quantities like residual
stresses present in the medium. In this work the acoustic nonlinearity parameter (ANP) for surface acoustic waves is
examined through the derivation of an evolution equation for the amplitude of the second harmonic. Given a certain
depth profile of the third-order elastic constants, the dependence of the ANP with respect to the input frequency is
determined and on the basis of these results, an appropriate inversion method is developed. This method is intended
for the extraction of the depth dependence of the third-order elastic constants of the material from second-harmonic
generation and guided wave mixing experiments, assuming that the change in the linear Rayleigh wave velocity is
small. The latter assumption is supported by a 3D-FEM model study of a medium with randomly distributed microcracks as well as theoretical works on this topic in the literature.

Surface and interface acoustic waves are two-dimensionally guided waves, as their displacement field is plane-wave like regarding its dependence on the spatial coordinates parallel to the guiding plane, while it decays exponentially along the axis normal to that plane. When propagating at the planar surface or interface of homogeneous media, they are non-dispersive. Another type of non-dispersive acoustic waves which is, however, one-dimensionally guided, has displacement fields localized near the apex of a wedge made of an elastic material. In this short review, their propagation properties are described as well as theoretical and experimental methods which have been used for their analysis. Experimental findings are discussed in comparison with corresponding theoretical work and potential applications of this fascinating type of acoustic waves are presented.

Existing ultrasonic stress evaluation methods utilize the acoustoelastic effect for bulk waves propagating in volume, which is unsuitable for a surface treated material, possessing a significant variation in material properties with depth. With knowledge of nonlinear elastic parameters – third-order elastic constants (TOEC) close to the surface of the sample, the acoustoelastic effect might be used with surface acoustic waves. This work is focused on the development of an independent method of TOEC measurement using the effect of nonlinear surface acoustic waves scattering – i.e. the effect of elastic waves interaction in a nonlinear medium.
In this paper, the possible three wave interactions of surface guided waves and bulk waves are described and formulae for the efficiency of harmonic generation and mode mixing are derived. A comparison of the efficiency of surface waves scattering in an isotropic medium for different interaction types is carried out with the help of nonlinear perturbation theory. First results for surface and bulk wave mixing with known second- and third-order elastic constants are shown.

A theoretical description is given for the propagation of surface acoustic wave pulses in anisotropic elastic media subject to the influence of nonlinearity. On the basis of nonlinear elasticity theory, an evolution equation is presented for the surface slope or the longitudinal surface velocity associated with an acoustic pulse. It contains a non-local nonlinearity, characterized by a kernel that strongly varies from one propagation geometry to another due to the anisotropy of the substrate. It governs pulse shape evolution in homogeneous halfspaces and the shapes of solitary surface pulses that exist in coated substrates. The theory describing nonlinear Rayleigh-type surface acoustic waves is extended in a straightforward way to surface waves that are localized at a one-dimensional acoustic waveguide like elastic wedges.