### Refine

#### Document Type

- Article (reviewed) (9)
- Conference Proceeding (1)
- Article (unreviewed) (1)
- Report (1)

#### Conference Type

- Konferenzartikel (1)

#### Has Fulltext

- no (12)

#### Is part of the Bibliography

- yes (12)

#### Keywords

- Ermüdung (4)
- Finite-Elemente-Methode (3)
- Grauguss (3)
- Mikrostruktur (3)
- Eisenguss (2)
- Gusseisen (2)
- Lebensdauer (2)
- Plastizität (2)
- Thermomechanik (2)
- Bauteil (1)

#### Institute

#### Open Access

- Closed Access (6)
- Open Access (6)

In this paper, the initial multiaxial yield behavior of three different gray cast iron materials with lamellar shaped graphite inclusions is numerically investigated by means of the finite-element method. Therefore, volume elements including the real microstructure of the materials are loaded bi- and triaxially beyond macroscopic yield. The shape of the obtained yield surfaces are compared to the surfaces of four continuum models which, amongst others, are proposed in literature to describe the inelastic behavior of gray cast iron with lamellar shaped graphite inclusions. It is found that the presented continuum models and the macroscopic yield surfaces obtained with microstructure-based finite-element models deviate. Furthermore, the initial inelastic flow direction is computed at the onset of macroscopic yielding. The analysis show that the inelastic flow is normal to the yield surface.

A new yield function for lamellar gray cast iron materials is proposed. The new model is able to describe the results of recently performed microstructure-based finite-element computations that resolve the three dimensional yield surface of three different gray cast irons. The yield function requires only the yield stress in tension and compression of the respective material as model parameters. Furthermore, the algorithmic formulation of the new model is assessed for numerical robustness and efficiency.

In this paper, the correlation of the cyclic J-integral, ΔJ, and the cyclic crack-tip opening displacement, ΔCTOD, is studied in the presence of crack closure to assess the question if ΔJ describes the crack-tip opening displacement in this case. To this end, a method is developed to evaluate ΔJ numerically within finite-element calculations. The method is validated for an elastic–plastic material that exhibits Masing behavior. Different strain ranges and strain ratios are considered under fully plastic cyclic conditions including crack closure. It is shown that the cyclic J-integral is the parameter to determine the cyclic crack-tip opening displacement even in cases where crack closure is present.

This paper reports on the evolution of cracks in the cylinder heads of a large V8 Diesel engine during cyclic engine tests. The observations are compared with the predictions of a lifetime model for combined thermo-mechanical (TMF) and high cycle fatigue (HCF) loading, which is based on a fracture mechanics analysis of microcrack growth in viscoplastic solids and assumes that the crack advance per cycle is proportional to the cyclic crack tip opening displacement. Since the material of the cylinder heads, the cast iron EN-GJV450, exhibits the typical features of cast iron, namely pressure dependence of the yield stress, dilatancy and tension-compression asymmetry, the Gurson model is applied and combined with the viscoplastic Chaboche model. This constitutive model together with the lifetime model is implemented into a finite element code as a user defined material routine. Published model parameters for the considered cast iron are used to carry out the simulation of the engine test. This simulation comprises a CFD analysis to determine the heat transfer coefficients, a thermal analysis of the load cycle and the mechanical analysis. The thermal analysis reproduces the temperatures at various measuring points sufficiently accurately. Finally, the mechanical analysis predicts the location and orientation of the cracks in the valve bridges correctly in all cases. However, the lifetime predictions are rather conservative compared to the tests (by a factor of 1 to 5 in lifetime). This is discussed and explained by the fact that the cracks were detected in the tests only when they had already spread over a substantial fraction of the valve bridge width. To describe this situation a long-crack analysis would be necessary, which is not yet included in the applied lifetime model.

Für die Werkstoffe EN GJS700, EN GJV450 und EN GJL250 werden die Lebensdauern unter kombinierter thermomechanischer und hochfrequenter Belastung vorhergesagt. Hierzu wird ein mechanismenbasiertes Lebensdauermodell verwendet, das auf dem Wachstum von Mikrorissen beruht. Das Modell berücksichtigt das Wachstum von Rissen durch nieder- und überlagerte hochfrequente Belastungszyklen. Anhand von einachsigen Ermüdungsversuchen wurden die Parameter des Lebensdauermodells angepasst, sodass eine bestmögliche Lebensdauervorhersage erzielt wird. Dabei stimmen die vorhergesagten Lebensdauern gut mit den experimentell ermittelten Zyklenzahlen zum Versagen überein.

In this paper, an unconditionally stable algorithm for the numerical integration and finite-element implementation of a class of pressure dependent plasticity models with nonlinear isotropic and kinematic hardening is presented. Existing algorithms are improved in the sense that the number of equations to be solved iteratively is significantly reduced. This is achieved by exploitation of the structure of Armstrong-Frederik-type kinematic hardening laws. The consistent material tangent is derived analytically and compared to the numerically computed tangent in order to validate the implementation. The performance of the new algorithm is compared to an existing one that does not consider the possibility of reducing the number of unknowns to be iterated. The algorithm is used to implement a time and temperature dependent cast iron plasticity model, which is based on the pressure dependent Gurson model, in the finite-element program ABAQUS. The implementation is applied to compute stresses and strains in a large-scale finite-element model of a three cylinder engine block. This computation proofs the applicability of the algorithm in industrial practice that is of interest in applied sciences.

In this paper the fatigue life of three cast iron materials, namely EN-GJS-700, EN-GJV-450 and EN-GJL-250, is predicted for combined thermomechanical fatigue and high cycle fatigue loading. To this end, a mechanism-based model is used, which is based on microcrack growth. The model considers crack growth due to low frequency loading (thermomechanical and low cycle fatigue) and due to high cycle fatigue. To determine the model parameters for the cast iron materials, fatigue tests are performed under combined loading and crack growth is measured at room temperature using the replica technique. Superimposed high cycle fatigue leads to an accelerated crack growth as soon as a critical crack length and thus the threshold stress intensity factor is exceeded. The model takes this effect into account and predicts the fatigue lives of all cast iron materials investigated under combined loadings very well.

In der vorliegenden Arbeit werden mikrostruktur- und mechanismusbasierte Werkstoffmodelle zur Beschreibung des Deformations- und Lebensdauerverhaltens von thermomechanisch beanspruchten Graugusswerkstoffen vorgestellt.
Mit den Modellen wird das zyklische Deformations- und Lebensdauerverhalten verschiedener Graugusswerkstoffe für einachsig belastete Ermüdungsproben und für die Zylinderköpfe von Dieselmotoren vorhergesagt.

In this paper the yield surface of a recently presented microstructure-based volume element of the gray cast iron material GJL-250 is assessed after different plastic loading histories. The evolution of the yield surface is investigated for different volumetric, deviatoric and uniaxial loadings. The micromechanical material properties of the metallic matrix and the graphite inclusions are validated by means experimental stress-strain hysteresis loops. The metallic matrix is modeled as elastic-plastic with a non-linear kinematic hardening law. The graphite inclusions are described by means of a volumetric strain state dependent Young’s modulus. The results show that the shape of the yield surface does not change significantly in comparison to the initial yield surface after pure deviatoric loadings. After volumetric loadings, the dependence of the material on the Lode angle is significantly reduced. Uniaxial tensile preloadings result in a deformed yield surface, whereby the magnitude of the deformation depends on the applied load. Uniaxial preloadings to compression do not change the shape of the initial yield surface.

This paper focuses on the microstructure-dependent inelastic behavior of lamellar gray cast iron. It comprises the reconstruction of three dimensional volume elements by use of the serial sectioning method for the materials GJL-150, GJL-250 and GJL-350. The obtained volume elements are prepared for the numerical analyses by means of finite-element method. In the finite-element analysis, the metallic matrix is modeled with an elastic–plastic deformation law. The graphite inclusions are modeled nonlinear elastic with a decreasing value of Young’s modulus for increasing tensile loading. Thus, the typical tension–compression asymmetry of this material class can be described. The stress–strain curves obtained with the microstructure-based finite-element models agree well with experimental curves of tension and compression tests. Besides the analysis of the whole volume element, the scatter of the stress–strain response in smaller statistical volume elements is investigated. Furthermore, numerical studies are performed to reduce computational costs.

In dem abgeschlossenen Vorhaben „Entwicklung von Rechenmodellen zur Lebensdauervorhersage von Motorbauteilen unter thermisch-mechanischer Ermüdungsbeanspruchung“ der Forschungsvereinigung Verbrennungskraftmaschinen e. V. (FVV) wurde am Fraunhofer Institut für Werkstoffmechanik IWM in Freiburg ein Materialmodell zur Lebensdauervorhersage thermomechanisch belasteter Komponenten entwickelt. Das Modell basiert auf einem viskoplastischen Verformungsmodell für Eisengusswerkstoffe und einem mechanismenbasierten Modell für Mikrorisswachstum zur Lebensdauervorhersage.

In this paper, the multiaxial formulation of a mechanism-based model for fatigue life prediction is presented whichcan be applied to low-cycle fatigue (LCF) and thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) problems in which high-cycle fa-tigue loadings are superimposed. The model assumes that crack growth is the lifetime limiting mechanism and thatthe crack advance in a loading cycleda/dNcorrelates with the cyclic crack-tip opening displacement ΔCTOD.The multiaxial formulation makes use of fracture mechanics solutions and thus, does not need additional modelparameters quantifying the effect of the multiaxiality. Furthermore, the model includes contributions of HCF on ΔCTODand assesses the effect of the direction of the HCF loadings with respect to LCF or TMF loadings inthe life prediction. The model is implemented into the finite-element program ABAQUS. It is applied to predictthe fatigue life of a thermomechanically loaded notched specimen that should represent the situation between theinlet and outlet bore holes of cylinder heads. A good correlation of the predicted and the measured fatigue lives isobtained.