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Increasing power density causes increased self-generation of harmonics and intermodulation. As this leads to violations of the strict linearity requirements, especially for carrier aggregation (CA), the nonlinearity must be considered in the design process of RF devices. This raises the demand of accurate simulation models. Linear and nonlinear P-Matrix/COM models are used during the design due to their fast simulation times and accurate results. However, the finite element method (FEM) is useful to get a deeper insight in the device's nonlinearities, as the total field distributions can be visualized. The FE method requires complete sets of material tensors, which are unknown for most relevant materials in nonlinear micro-acoustics. In this work, we perform nonlinear FEM simulations, which allow the calculation of nonlinear field distributions of a lithium tantalate based layered SAW system up to third order. We aim at achieving good correspondence to measured data and determine the contributions of each material layer to the nonlinear signals. Therefore, we use approximations circumventing the issue of limited higher order tensor data. Experimental data for the third order nonlinearity is shown to validate the presented approach.

In a recent paper it has been shown that the effective nonlinear constant which is used in a P-Matrix approach to describe third-order intermodulation (IMD3) in surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices can be obtained from finite element (FEM) calculations of a periodic cell using nonlinear tensor data [1]. In this paper we extend this FEM calculation and show that the IMD3 of an infinite periodic array of electrodes on a piezoelectric substrate can be directly simulated in the sagittal plane. This direct approach opens the way for a FEM based simulation of nonlinearities for finite and generalized structures avoiding the simplifications of phenomenological approaches.

In a SAW device comprises a SAW chip bearing a SAW transducer arranged within a first signal line parasitic signals due to higher harmonics of the operating frequency of the SAW devices are electrically eliminated by compensating means comprising at least one second signal line having means for producing a cancelling signal different in sign or phase to the parasitic signal, or a shunt line to electrically connect the SAW transducer to a back side metallization of the SAW chip.

In einer SAW-Vorrichtung, welche einen SAW-Chip umfasst, der einen SAW-Wandler aufweist, welcher innerhalb einer ersten Signalleitung angeordnet ist, werden Parasitärsignale infolge höherer Harmonischer der Betriebsfrequenz der SAW-Vorrichtungen durch Kompensationsmittel elektrisch beseitigt, welche zumindest eine zweite Signalleitung mit Mitteln zum Erzeugen eines Aufhebungssignals, das im Vorzeichen oder in der Phase vom Parasitärsignal verschieden ist, oder eine Nebenschlussleitung zum elektrischen Verbinden des SAW-Wandlers mit einer rückseitigen Metallisierung des SAW-Chips umfassen.

Nonlinearity can give rise to intermodulation distortions in surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices operating at high input power levels. To understand such undesired effects, a finite element method (FEM) simulation model in combination with a perturbation theory is applied to find out the role of different materials and higher order nonlinear tensor data for the nonlinearities in such acoustic devices. At high power, the SAW devices containing metal, piezoelectric substrate, and temperature compensating (TC) layers are subject to complicated geometrical, material, and other nonlinearities. In this paper, third-order nonlinearities in TC-SAW devices are investigated. The materials used are LiNbO 3 -rot128YX as the substrate and copper electrodes covered with a SiO 2 film as the TC layer. An effective nonlinearity constant for a given system is determined by comparison of nonlinear P-matrix simulations to third-order intermodulation measurements of test filters in a first step. By employing these constants from different systems, i.e., different metallization ratios, in nonlinear periodic P-matrix simulations, a direct comparison to nonlinear periodic FEM-simulations yields scaling factors for the materials used. Thus, the contribution of the different materials to the nonlinear behavior of TC-SAW devices is obtained and the role of metal electrodes, substrate, and TC film are discussed in detail.

Laser ultrasound was used to determine dispersion curves of surface acoustic waves on a Si (001) surface covered by AlScN films with a scandium content between 0 and 41%. By including off-symmetry directions for wavevectors, all five independent elastic constants of the film were extracted from the measurements. Results for their dependence on the Sc content are presented and compared to corresponding data in the literature, obtained by alternative experimental methods or by ab-initio calculations.

In the present work, nonlinearities in temperature
compensating (TC) SAW devices are investigated. The materials
used are LiNbO3-rot128YX as the substrate and Copper electrodes covered with a SiO2-layer as the compensating layer.
In order to understand the role of these materials for the
nonlinearities in such acoustic devices, a FEM simulation model
in combination with a perturbation approach [1] is applied.
The nonlinear tensor data of the different materials involved
in TC-SAW devices have been taken from literature, but were
partially modified to fit experimental data by introducing scaling factors. An effective nonlinearity constant is determined
by comparison of nonlinear P-matrix simulations to IMD3
measurements of test filters. By employing these constants in
nonlinear periodic P-matrix simulations a direct comparison to
nonlinear periodic FEM-simulations yields the scaling factors for
the material used. Thus, the contribution of different materials
to the nonlinear behavior of TC-SAW devices is obtained and
the role of metal electrodes is discussed in detail

Properties of higher-order surface acoustic wave modes in Al(1-x)Sc(x)N / sapphire structures
(2021)

In this work, surface acoustic wave (SAW) modes and their dependence on propagation directions in epitaxial Al0.68Sc0.32N(0001) films on Al2O3(0001) substrates were studied using numerical and experimental methods. In order to find optimal propagation directions for higher-order SAW modes, phase velocity dispersion branches of Al0.68Sc0.32N on Al2O3 with Pt mass loading were computed for the propagation directions <11-20> and <1-100> with respect to the substrate. Experimental investigations of phase velocities and electromechanical coupling were performed for comparison with the numerical results. Simulations carried out with the finite element method (FEM) and with a Green function approach allowed identification of each wave type, including Rayleigh, Sezawa and shear horizontal wave modes. For the propagation direction <1-100>, significantly increased wave guidance of the Sezawa mode compared to other directions was observed, resulting in enhanced electromechanical coupling (k2eff = 1.6 %) and phase velocity (vphase = 6 km/s). We demonstrated, that selecting wave propagation in <1-100> with high mass density electrodes results in increased electromechanical coupling without significant reduction in phase velocities for the Sezawa wave mode. An improved combination of metallization, Sc concentration x, and SAW propagation direction is suggested which exhibits both high electromechanical coupling (k2eff > 6 %) and high velocity (vphase = 5.5 km/s) for the Sezawa mode.