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In the framework of electro-elasticity theory and the finite element method (FEM), a model is set up for the computation of quantities in surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices accounting for nonlinear effects. These include second-order and third-order intermodulations, second and third harmonic generation and the influence of electro-acoustic nonlinearity on the frequency characteristics of SAW resonators. The model is based on perturbation theory, and requires input material constants, e.g., the elastic moduli up to fourth order for all materials involved. The model is two-dimensional, corresponding to an infinite aperture, but all three Cartesian components of the displacement and electrical fields are accounted for. The first version of the model pertains to an infinite periodic arrangement of electrodes. It is subsequently generalized to systems with a finite number of electrodes. For the latter version, a recursive algorithm is presented which is related to the cascading scheme of Plessky and Koskela and strongly reduces computation time and memory requirements. The model is applied to TC-SAW systems with copper electrodes buried in an oxide film on a LiNbO3 substrate. Results of computations are presented for the electrical current due to third-order intermodulations and the displacement field associated with the second harmonic and second-order intermodulations, generated by monochromatic input tones. The scope of this review is limited to methodological aspects with the goal to enable calculations of nonlinear quantities in SAW devices on inexpensive and easily accessible computing platforms.

A simple model is introduced that describes the interaction of surface acoustic waves (SAWs) with a 2D periodic array of objects on the surface that give rise to internal resonances. Such objects may be high-aspect ratio structures like micro-pillars fabricated of a material different from that of the substrate. The model allows for an approximate determination of the band structure for the acoustic modes in such systems. Results are presented for the dependence on structural parameters of a total bandgap in the non-radiative regime of a semi-infinite substrate, and it is shown how the frequency and radiation damping of vibrational modes can be determined that are associated with defects in the periodic 2D array.

Rotation of an elastic medium gives rise to a shift of frequency of its acoustic modes, i.e., the time-period vibrations that exist in it. This frequency shift is investigated by applying perturbation theory in the regime of small ratios of the rotation velocity and the frequency of the acoustic mode. In an expansion of the relative frequency shift in powers of this ratio, upper bounds are derived for the first-order and the second-order terms. The derivation of the theoretical upper bounds of the first-order term is presented for linear vibration modes as well as for stable nonlinear vibrations with periodic time dependence that can be represented by a Fourier series.

Recently a P-matrix and COM formalism was presented, which predicts third order intermodulation (IMD3) and triple beat with good accuracy and needs only a single nonlinearity constant. This formalism describes frequency dependence correctly. In this work the dependence of this nonlinearity constant on metalization ratio is investigated for aluminum metalization on LiTaO 3 (YXl)/42°. By comparison to test devices the nonlinearity constant is shown to be largely independent of metalization ratio. The nonlinear effect, however, strongly depends on metalization ratio, which is well described by the model. The linearity of a duplexer is optimized by reduction of metalization ratio and redesign of Tx branch topology.

In a SAW device comprises a SAW chip bearing a SAW transducer arranged within a first signal line parasitic signals due to higher harmonics of the operating frequency of the SAW devices are electrically eliminated by compensating means comprising at least one second signal line having means for producing a cancelling signal different in sign or phase to the parasitic signal, or a shunt line to electrically connect the SAW transducer to a back side metallization of the SAW chip.

In einer SAW-Vorrichtung, welche einen SAW-Chip umfasst, der einen SAW-Wandler aufweist, welcher innerhalb einer ersten Signalleitung angeordnet ist, werden Parasitärsignale infolge höherer Harmonischer der Betriebsfrequenz der SAW-Vorrichtungen durch Kompensationsmittel elektrisch beseitigt, welche zumindest eine zweite Signalleitung mit Mitteln zum Erzeugen eines Aufhebungssignals, das im Vorzeichen oder in der Phase vom Parasitärsignal verschieden ist, oder eine Nebenschlussleitung zum elektrischen Verbinden des SAW-Wandlers mit einer rückseitigen Metallisierung des SAW-Chips umfassen.

A Nonlinear FEM Model to Calculate Third-Order Harmonic and Intermodulation in TC-SAW Devices
(2018)

Nonlinearities in Temperature Compensated SAW (TC-SAW) devices in the 2 GHz range are investigated using a nonlinear finite element model by simultaneously considering both third-order intermodulation distortion (IMD3)and third harmonic (H3). In the employed perturbation approach, different contributions to the total H3, the direct and indirect contribution, are discussed. H3 and IMD3 measurements were fitted simultaneously using scaling factors for SiO 2 film and Cu electrode nonlinear material tensors in TC-SAW devices. We employ a P-Matrix simulation as intermediate step: Firstly, measurement and nonlinear P-Matrix calculations for finite devices are compared and coefficients of the P-Matrix simulation are determined. The nonlinear tensor data of the different materials involved in periodic nonlinear finite element method (FEM) computations are optimized to fit periodic P-Matrix calculations by introducing scaling factors. Thus, the contribution of different materials to the nonlinear behavior of TC-SAW devices is obtained and the role of materials is discussed.

In this work a set of nonlinear coupled COM equations at interacting frequencies is derived on the basis of nonlinear electro-elasticity. The formalism is presented with the aim of describing intermodulation distortion of third-order (IMD3) and triple beat. The resulting COM equations are translated to the P-matrix formalism, where care is taken to obtain the correct frequency dependence. The scheme depends on two frequency-independent constants for an effective third-order nonlinearity. One of these two constants is negligibly small in the systems considered here. The P-matrix approach is applied to single filters and duplexers on LiTaO 3 (YXl)/42° operating in different frequency ranges. Both IMD3 and triple beat show good agreement with measurement.

The growing complexity in RF front-ends, which support carrier aggregation and a growing number of frequency bands, leads to tightened nonlinearity requirements in all sub-components. The generation of third order intermodulation products (IMD3) are typical problems caused by the non-linearity of SAW devices. In the present work, we investigate temperature compensating (TC) SAW devices on Lithium Niobate-rot128YX. An accurate FEM simulation model [1] is employed, which allows to better understand the origin of nonlinearities in such acoustic devices.

Nonlinearity can give rise to intermodulation distortions in surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices operating at high input power levels. To understand such undesired effects, a finite element method (FEM) simulation model in combination with a perturbation theory is applied to find out the role of different materials and higher order nonlinear tensor data for the nonlinearities in such acoustic devices. At high power, the SAW devices containing metal, piezoelectric substrate, and temperature compensating (TC) layers are subject to complicated geometrical, material, and other nonlinearities. In this paper, third-order nonlinearities in TC-SAW devices are investigated. The materials used are LiNbO 3 -rot128YX as the substrate and copper electrodes covered with a SiO 2 film as the TC layer. An effective nonlinearity constant for a given system is determined by comparison of nonlinear P-matrix simulations to third-order intermodulation measurements of test filters in a first step. By employing these constants from different systems, i.e., different metallization ratios, in nonlinear periodic P-matrix simulations, a direct comparison to nonlinear periodic FEM-simulations yields scaling factors for the materials used. Thus, the contribution of the different materials to the nonlinear behavior of TC-SAW devices is obtained and the role of metal electrodes, substrate, and TC film are discussed in detail.

In a recent paper it has been shown that the effective nonlinear constant which is used in a P-Matrix approach to describe third-order intermodulation (IMD3) in surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices can be obtained from finite element (FEM) calculations of a periodic cell using nonlinear tensor data [1]. In this paper we extend this FEM calculation and show that the IMD3 of an infinite periodic array of electrodes on a piezoelectric substrate can be directly simulated in the sagittal plane. This direct approach opens the way for a FEM based simulation of nonlinearities for finite and generalized structures avoiding the simplifications of phenomenological approaches.

In the present work, nonlinearities in temperature compensating (TC) SAW devices are investigated. The materials used are LiNbO₃-rot128YX as the substrate and Copper electrodes covered with a SiO₂-layer as the compensating layer. In order to understand the role of these materials for the nonlinearities in such acoustic devices, a FEM simulation model in combination with a perturbation approach is applied. The nonlinear tensor data of the different materials involved in TC-SAW devices have been taken from literature, but were partially modified to fit experimental data by introducing scaling factors. An effective nonlinearity constant is determined by comparison of nonlinear P-matrix simulations to IMD3 measurements of test filters. By employing these constants in nonlinear periodic P-matrix simulations a direct comparison to nonlinear periodic FEM-simulations yields the scaling factors for the material used. Thus, the contribution of different materials to the nonlinear behavior of TC-SAW devices is obtained and the role of metal electrodes is discussed in detail.

The advantages of the coupling-of-modes (COM) formalism and the transmission-matrix approach are combined to create exact and computationally efficient analysis and synthesis CAD tools for the design of SAW-resonator filters. The models for the filter components, especially gratings, interdigital transducers (IDTs). and multistrip couplers (MSCs), are based on the COM approach, which delivers closed-form expressions. In order to determine the relevant COM parameters, the integrated COM differential equations are compared with analytically derived expressions from the transmission-matrix approach. The most important second-order effects such as energy storage, propagation loss and mechanical and electrical loading are fully taken into account. As an example, the authors investigate a two-pole, acoustically coupled resonator filter at 914.5 MHz on AT quartz. Excellent agreement between theory and measurement is found.

The advantages of the coupled-mode (COM) formalism and the transmission-matrix approach are combined in order to create exact and computationally efficient analysis and synthesis tools for the design of coupled surface acoustic wave resonator filters. The models for the filter components, in particular gratings, interdigital transducers (IDTs) and multistrip couplers (MSCs), are based on the COM approach that delivers closed-form expressions. To determine the pertinent COM parameters, the COM differential equations are solved and the solution is compared with analytically derived expressions from the transmission-matrix approach and the Green's function method. The most important second-order effects, such as energy storage, propagation loss, and mechanical and electrical loading, are fully taken into account. As an example, a two-pole, acoustically coupled resonator filter at 914.5 MHz on AT quartz is investigated. Excellent agreement between theory and measurement is found.